Designed to evaluate candidates' expertise and provide direction for continued learning, the American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS) primary (written) examination is a required step to attaining board certification in the U.S. The rigorous exam requires substantial preparation. Each author brings unique qualifications to this publication - from writing previous editions, to achieving the second highest exam score in the U.S. - to the insights of a current chief resident. Their mission is to help readers comprehend the material and retain this knowledge, rather than solely striving for the highest score. This essential board prep review mirrors the exam's multiple-choice format and seven sections: neurosurgery, clinical neurology, neuroanatomy, neurobiology, neuropathology, neuroradiology, and clinical skills/critical care. Presented in a new and improved layout, the third edition encompasses the numerous advances in neurosurgery since the 2004 edition was published. New Key Features: Expanded coverage of endovascular techniques for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms, the latest advanced imaging technologies, and treatment paradigm updates for acute ischemic stroke More than 1,000 questions with answers that include detailed, insightful explanations High-quality illustrations and superb anatomical dissections by Albert L. Rhoton Jr., MD, and other masters This invaluable board review will help neurosurgical residents prepare thoroughly for the primary ABNS exam. It is also beneficial for neuroscience residents specializing in neurology and neuropathology.