Decompression is still the mainstay of surgical intervention for neurosurgeons treating neurocritical care patients. However, during the last 20 years, an evolution away from a mechanistic approach has transformed neurocritical care into an increasingly multidisciplinary field. Neurosurgical Intensive Care, 2nd Edition reflects this new paradigm, authored by a neurosurgeon with contributions from experts in the fields of neurology, vascular neurology, interventional neuroradiology, anesthesiology, critical care, traumatology, nutrition, and advanced practice nursing. Neuromonitoring advances have enabled customized interventions tailored to each patient's unique circumstances. The critical care of neurosurgical patients has evolved from an emphasis on pulmonary care (ventilation and oxygenation) to a more nuanced understanding of cerebral protection measures required to manage a disrupted blood-brain-barrier.