The development of catalytic systems for the oxidation of organic compounds continues to be of great importance. There is an ongoing and increasing demand for methods that are selective, proceed under mild conditions, and adhere to green chemistry principles. “Science of Synthesis: Catalytic Oxidation in Organic Synthesis” includes the latest developments in the field, as well as selective coverage of more well-established methods. Systems based on metal catalysts, organocatalysts, and biomimetic oxidation are covered, and there is a particular focus on asymmetric processes. Scope, limitations, and mechanism of the reactions are discussed and key experimental procedures are included. Typical examples of target synthesis are often provided to show the utility and inspire further applications.