The book describes the social conditions, culture and daily life of the Tuaregs, as well as their history with special references to the period after the independence of Niger and Mali in 1960. As a minority in these two countries, the Tuaregs have been placed in a difficult situation and today they are in serious trouble; since the independence in 1960, the Tuaregs have been constantly ignored by the various governments, and today the consequences of this are visible in their areas which are underdeveloped. The young Tuaregs are mostly illiterate and untrained and with no hope for the future. In 1990, they started a revolt which resulted in the fact that 90% of the Tuaregs in Mali have now fled to other countries, mainly Algeria. The book has detailed sections describing the structure of the Tuareg society, everyday life, culture and traditional literature, and economic history, and featuring a detailed bibliography for this field of study.